According to the archaeological findings Kimolos was continuously inhabited at least from the Late Neolithic Age.
The wild Greek imagination wanted to accredit its name to the first inhabitant Kimolos, husband of daughter of Taurus, Side. They attributed to her the epithets Echinousa (island of the sea urchins) and Echidnousa (island of the vipers).
Findings from the Mycenaean, Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods have been found at the sunken city and the necropolis in the area Ellinika. It seems that this city was inhabited by the people of the island until the early Christian years.
In the 5th century BC it was part of the Athenian Alliance and its regime was organized according to the model of the Athenian democracy. There was a Boule and Demos and the authority was exercised by three archons and three cashiers. The patron saint was Athena, while Artemis, Hermes and Poseidon were also worshipped.
In the 3rd century BC Kimolos minted coins, an opportunity provided by the great amount of exports of the “land of Kimolos” and the excellent figs.
The island possesses “mineral refrigerators” where the people chilled the water to such a degree that it was “... similar to snow”.
The conflict of Kimolos with Milos for the possession of Polyaigos and the nearby small islands started in 416 BC and came to an end sometime after 338 BC with a decision of the court of the Argives and with victory on the side of Kimolos and it continuous to possess this right until the present day.
The very few information available regarding the Roman and Byzantine periods have to do mainly with the commerce of chalk.
On the top of the hill Paliokastro there are ruins of a castle and a tower of unknown age.
Kimolos passed from Byzantine to Frankish hands in 1207 when it was occupied by Marco Sanudo.
Franks, Venetians and pirates of every nationality and Turks caused a serious reduction of population and the financial decline of the island. The danger that all the above represented to the local population left a visible trace: the medieval castle that constituted the only settlement of the island.
During the first Russia-Turkey war, Orlov made detailed maps of the island wither seeking the legendary silver mines or, according to other sources, due to the strategic importance of the island.
After the liberation from the Turks, Chorio expanded to the relatively smooth area around the Castle.
Text: George A. Ventouris, Despoina Athanasiadou-Ventouri